My Ahnentafel
Definition | 14-gen | GEDCOM

1.1. Michael Hugh COOLEY 1.2. Lonnie Rae COOLEY
2ND GENERATION
2. Allison Claude COOLEY 3. Billie Dell HOGUE
3RD GENERATION
4. McCabe COOLEY 5. Marie Henrietta HENNEQUIN 6. Hugh Wallace HOGUE 7. Birdie Nina MCDOWELL
4TH GENERATION
8. Joseph William COOLEY 9. Araminta D JOHNSON 10. Louis Francois HENNEQUIN 11. Marguerite STEWARD 12. Robert Irwin HOGUE 13. Nancy Joanna FOSTER 14. William Ellis MCDOWELL 15. Euphemia Ruth ASHENHURST
5TH GENERATION
16. Greenbury COOLEY 17. Amelia Mohler PETTIT 18. Wesley Phillip JOHNSON 19. Susan Isabel FISK 20. Louis HENNEQUIN 21. Maria Theresa DRAVIGNEY 22. John Joseph STEWARD 23. Fanny LAURENT 24. John HOGUE 25. Ann R SIMPSON 26. John A FOSTER 27. Martha Jane STRUTHERS 28. William Erwin MCDOWELL 29. Maria HART 30. Oliver Taylor ASHENHURST 31. Sara Eva SOUTHERN
6TH GENERATION
32. David COOLEY 33. Laurinda AIKEN 34. Joseph PETTET 35. Elizabeth MOHLER 36. Elijah JOHNSON 37. Anna Jane FOSTER 38. Edward Curtis FISK 39. Arminta D WOOD 40. Xavier HANNEQUIN 41. Marie Magdeleine BELOT 42. Pierre Joseph DRAVIGNEY 43. Marie Thérèse GILBERT 44. Joseph STEWARD 46. Jean Baptiste LAURENT 47. Jeaninne Henriette VANDERMEULEN 48. James HOGUE 49. Margaret IRWIN 50. Isaac SIMPSON 51. Elizabeth RICHARDSON 52. Samuel FOSTER 53. Nancy ____ 54. James STRUTHERS 55. Elizabeth SAVILLE 56. John MCDOWELL 57. Anna CURRY 58. Joseph HART Sr 59. Susan PICKENS 60. Oliver ASHENHURST 61. Euphemia BISHOP 62. Charles William SOUTHERN 63. Ruth Ruema HOOVER
7TH GENERATION
64. John COOLEY 65. Sela WRIGHT 66. William AKINS 67. Rebecca MCCLINTICK 73. Ruth ____ ? 76. John R FISK 77. Mahala KEMP 78. John WOOD 79. Charity CORSON 85. Jeanne Claude DRAVIGNEY 86. Josph GILBERT 87. Agathe LANGARD 102. Matthew RICHARDSON 103. Ann STOCKTON 104. James Couples FOSTER 105. Jane MORROW 108. William STRUTHERS 109. Janet LINDSAY 110. Robert SAVILLE 111. Deborah ____ 112. John MCDOWELL 113. Jane ERWIN 116. Edward HART 117. Nancy Ann STOUT 118. John PICKENS 120. William ASHENHURST 121. Nancy ASHENHURST 122. Peter BISHOP 123. Eleanor ____ 124. John SOUTHERN 125. Elizabeth DUNCAN 126. John HOOVER? 127. unknown
8TH GENERATION
128. Edward COOLEY 129. Martha RAPER 130. William WRIGHT 131. Martha MORGAN 132. William EAKIN 133. Mary WALLACE 134. John MCCLINTICK 135. Mary Jane MCDOWELL 152. Richard FISK 154. William KEMP 155. Sukey DAMANT 158. Eli CORSON 159. Christianna THOMPSON 206. Richard Witham STOCKTON 207. Mary Ann HATFIELD 210. Samuel ? MORROW ? 218. James LINDSAY 219. Margaret WATSON 220. Samuel SAVILLE 221. Ann BOOTH 224. John MCDOWELL 225. Esther HARRISON 226. William ERWIN 227. Mary ERWIN 232. John HART Signer 233. Deborah SCUDDER 234. St Leger Codd STOUT 235. Susannah SIMPSON 248. William SOUTHERN 249. Magdelaine FORD 250. Charles DUNCAN 251. Margaret KIRK 252->255. unknown
9TH GENERATION
256. John COOLEY 257. poss Sarah MATTHEWS 258. Thomas RAPER 259. Martha HAM 260. Richard WRIGHT Sr103 261. Ann 262. James MORGAN 263. Mary DAVIS 316. Jacob CORSON Jr 317. Charity STILLWELL 318. Benajah TOMSON 319. Prudence ELDREDGE 412. Samuel STOCKTON 413. Rachel STOUT 414. Joseph HATFIELD 415. Phoebe CLARK 442. Robert BOOTH 443. Ann GASTON 452. John ERWIN 453. Jane WILLIAMS 454. Francis ERWIN 455. Jane CURRY 464. Capt Edward HART 465. Martha FURMAN 466. Richard Betts SCUDDER Jr 467. Hannah STILLWELL 468. James STOUT 469. Mary Ann CODD 496. John SOUTHERN ? 497. Margaret KIDD ? 500. Charles DUNCAN 502. John KIRK Sr 503. Margaret BROOKS 504->517. unknown
10TH GENERATION
518->823. unknown 632. Jacob CORSON Sr 633. Naomi 634. Nicholas STILLWELL 635. Sara HAND 824. Richard STOCKTON 825. Susannah WITHAM 826. Col Joseph STOUT 827. Ruth BRYMSON 828. Abraham HATFIELD 829. Phoebe OGDEN 829. John CLARK 904. Edward ERWIN 905. Frances FRANCIS 908. see 904 909. see 905 910. William CURRY 911. Sally YOUNG 928. John HART 2nd 929. Mary HUNT 930. Josiah FURMAN 2nd 931. Sarah STRICKLAND 932. Richard Betts SCUDDER Sr 933. Hannah REEDER 936. see 826 937. see 827 938. Capt St Leger CODD 939. Mary HANSON 1000. John DUNCAN 1001. Dinah BRADFORD 940->1035. unknown
11TH GENERATION
1036->1263. unknown 1264. Jan CARSTENSEN 1265. Maria Elias DAAS 1268. John STILLWELL Jr 1270. George HAND 1648. Richard STOCKTON 1649. Abigail ____ 1650. Robert WITHAM 1651. Ann HOAG 1652. Jonathan STOUT 1653. Anne BOLLEN 1654. Daniel BRYMSON 1655. Frances GREENLAND 1856. John HART 1st 1857. Mary ____ 1858. Ralph HUNT 1859. Elizabeth JESSUP 1860. Josiah FURMAN 1st 1862. Edmund STRICKLAND 1863. Hannah ____ 1864. John SCUDDER Jr 1865. Joanna BETTS 1866. John REEDER 2nd 1867. Hannah BURROUGHS 1876. Col St Leger CODD 115 1877. Anna BENNETT 115 1878. Col Hans HANSON 1879. Martha Kelts WOODARD 2002. John BRADFORD 2003. Mary MARR 1880->2071. unknown
12TH GENERATION
2072->2079. unknown 2528. Carsten JANSEN 2529. Barbara 2530. Elias DAAS 2536. John STILLWELL 2537. Elizabeth PERRIN 2540. Thomas HAND 2541. Katherine STUBBS 3296. John STOCKTON 3296. Eleanor CLAYTON 3304. Richard STOUT 3305. Penelope VAN PRINCIS 3306. Capt James BOLLEN 3307. Anne VAUQUELLIN 3308. William BRINSDON 3309. Margaret ____ 3310. Dr Henry GREENLAND 3311. Mary BAREFOOT 3312. Thomas HATFIELD 3313. Anna 3314. Cornelius MELYN 3316. John OGDEN 3317. Jane BOND 3718. Edward JESSUP 3719. Elizabeth BRIDGES 3720. John FURMAN 3724. John STRICKLAND 3728. John SCUDDER Sr 3729. Mary KING 3730. Capt Richard BETTS 3731. Joanna CHAMBERLAYNE 3732. John REEDER 1st 3733. Hannah THORPE 3734. Jeremiah BURROUGHS 3735. Hannah WAY 3752. Col William CODD 115 3753. Lady Mary ST LEGER 115 3754. Gov Richard BENNETT 3755. Mary Ann LONGWORTH113 106 3756. Andrew HANSON 3757. Annika ____ 4006. John MARR Sr 3758->4143. unknown
13TH GENERATION
4144->4159. unknown 5072. William STILLWELL 5073. Hannah 5074. Daniel PERRIN 5075. Elizabeth 5080. John HAND 5081. Elizabeth GRANSDEN 6592. John STOCKTON 6593. Eleanor CLAYTON 6608. John STOUT 6609. Elizabeth BEE 6614. Robert VAUQUELLIN 6615. Jeanette 6622. Walter BAREFOOT 6632. Richard OGDEN 6633. Elizabeth HUNTINGTON 7448. Jacob STRICKLAND 7456. Thomas SCUDDER 7457. Elizabeth LOWERS 7458. William KING 7459. Dorothy HAYNES 7460. John BETTES 7461. Mary BIGGS 7462. Rev Robert CHAMBERLAYNE 7463. Elizabeth STOUGHTON 7466. William THORPE 7467. Garthered BLITHE 7468. John BURROUGHS 7469. Johanna JESSUP 7470. James WAY 7504. William CODD 7505. Hester LAMPORD 7506. Sir Warham ST LEGER115 7507. Dame Mary HAYWARD115 7508. Thomas BENNETT 7509. Anstie Tomson SPICER 7512. John HANSON 8012. Daniel MARR 7511->8287. unknown
14TH GENERATION
8288->8319. unknown 10144. Nicholas STILLWELL 10145. Ann 10148. Pierre PERRIN 10149. Andrienne JUBRIL 10160. John HAND 10161. Joan SIMMONS 10162. Henry GRANSDEN 13624. Edward OGDEN 13624. Margaret WILSON 14896. Sir Roger STRICKLAND 14912. Henry SCUDDER 14913. ____ LOWERS 14914. John LOWERS 14920. Alexander BETTES 14921. Joan LARKYN 14926. Rev Thomas STOUGHTON 14927. Katherine 14936. Jeremiah BURROUGHS 14938. John JESSUP 14939. Joanna KERRICH 15012. Sir Anthony ST LEGER 115 15013. Mary SCOTT 115 15014. Sir Rowland HAYWARD 115 15015. Katherine SMYTHE 15016. Robert BENNETT 15017. Elizabeth EDNEY 15024. Col. John HANSON 15025. Frances PRICHARD 15026->16575. unknown
15TH GENERATION
16576->20289. unknown 20298. Jean JUBRIL 20299. Juvine LOMBARD 20326. William GRANSDEN 20327. Ann 26528. William OGDEN 26529. Abigail GOODSALL 26530. Richard WILSON 26531. Margaret 29792. William de STIRKELAUNDE 29840. Robert BETTS 29876. Francis JESSOP 29877. Frances WHITE 30024. Sir Warham ST LEGER 115 30025. Lady Ursula NEVILLE 107 115 30026. Sir Thomas SCOTT 115 30027. Elizabeth BAKER 115 30028. George HAYWARD 30029. Margaret WITHBROKE 30030. Sir Thomas SMYTHE 30031. Alice JUDDE 30032. John BENNETT 30033. Margery 30034. John EDNYE 30048. Thomas HANSON 30049. Janet G GLEDHILL 30050. John PRICHARD 30051->33151. unknown
16TH GENERATION
33152->33279. unknown 53056. Richard OGDEN 53057. Mabel de HOOGAN 53058. Henry GOODSALL 59584. William de STIRKELAUNDE 59752. Richard JESSOP 59753. Ann SWIFT 59754. Alexander WHITE 59755. Eleanor SMITH 60048. Sir Anthony St LEGER 111 60049. Agnes WARHAM 112 60050. George NEVILLE 60051. Lady Mary STAFFORD 60052. Sir Reginald SCOTT 115 60053. Emiline KEMP 115 60054. Sir John BAKER 115 60055. Elizabeth DINLEY 115 60056. John HAYWARD 60060. John SMYTHE 60061. Joan BROUNCKER 60057. Agnes GLOVER 60096. John HANSON 60097. Agnes SAVILE 60098. John GLEDHILL 60099->66303. unknown
17TH GENERATION
66304->66559. unknown 106112. Robert OGDEN 106113. Joan 106114. Johannes de HOOGAN 116168. Walter de STRICKLAND 116169. Alice TEMPEST 119504. William JESSOP 119505. Emotte CHARLESWORTH 119506. Robert SWIFT 119508. Thomas WHITE 119510. William SMITH 119511. Katherine PORTER 120096. Ralph St LEGER 120097. Anne HART 120098. Heughe WARHAM 112 120099. Mary Ann COLLES 120100. George NEVILLE 120101. Margaret FENNE 120102. Edward STAFFORD 120103. Eleanor PERCY 120104. Sir John SCOTT 115 120105. Anne (Amy) PYMPE 115 120106. Sir William KEMP 111 115 120107. Elynor BROWNE 111 115 120108. Richard BAKER 120109. Elizabeth DYNELEY 120110. Thomas DINLEY 115 120112. William HAYWARD 120113. Agnes BALLY 120122. Robert BROUNCKER 120192. John HANSON 120193. Catherine BROOKE 120194. John SAVILE Esq. 120195. Margery GLEDHILL 120196->132607. unknown
18TH GENERATION
132608->132608. unknown 238336. Sir Walter de STRICKLAND 238337. Katherine NEVILLE 239020. Thomas SMITH 239021. Margaret CLARKE 239022. Augustine PORTER 240192. Ralph ST LEGER 240193. Anne PROPHET 240194. Sir Edward HART 240196. Robert WARHAM 240197. Elizabeth ____ 240198. Geoffrey COLLES 240200->240207. Royal Lineage 107 240208. Sir William SCOTT 115 240209. Sybil LEWKNOR 115 240210. Reginald DE PYMPE 115 240211. Elizabeth PASHLEY 115 240212. Sir Thomas KEMP 111 115 240213. Emelyn CHICHE 111 115 240214. Robert BROWNE 111 240215. Mary MALLETT 115 240218. Thomas DYNELEY 240224. William HAYWARD 240225. Elizabeth BROCKTON 240226. William BALLY 240384. John HANSON 240385. Cicely RAVENSHAW 240386. John BROOKE 240390. John GLEDHILL 240391->265215. unknown
19TH GENERATION
265216->266241. unknown 476672. Sir Walter de STRICKLAND 476673. Elizabeth PENNINGTON 480384. Ralph ST LEGER 480385. Margaret TYRREL 480400->480415. Royal Lineage 107 480416. Sir John SCOTT 480417. Agnes BEAUFITZ 480418. John LEWKNOR 115 480420. Sir William DE PYMPE 115 480421. Elizabeth WHETEHILL 480422. Sir John PASHELY 115 480423. Lowys GOWER 115 480424. Thomas KEMP 111 480425. Beathris LEUKENER 111 480426. Sir Valentine CHICHE 480427. Philippa CHICHELEY 480428. Sir Thomas BROWNE 111 115 480429. Alianor DE ARUNDEL 115 480430. William MALLETT 115 480448. William HAYWARD 480449. Jane WILCOCKES 480450. William BROCKTON 480768. John HANSON 480769. Cicely DE WINDEBANKE 480770. John RAVENSHAW 480826. Vincent CHICHELE 115 480827->530431. unknown
20TH GENERATION
530432->960767. unknown 953344. Sir Thomas STRICKLAND 953345. Agnes PARRE 960768. John ST LEGER 960769. Margery DONNETT 960824->960829. Royal Lineage 107 960830. Sir Walter D'EVEREAUX 107 960831. Elizabeth MERBURY 107 960832. William SCOTT 960833. Isabella HERBERT 960834. William DE BEAUFITZ 960842. Sir Richard WHETEHILL 960844. Sir John PASHLEY 115 960845. Elizabeth WYDVILLE 115 960846. Sir Thomas GOWER 115 960848. Sir John KEMP 111 960850. Sir Thomas LEUKENER 111 960851. ____ HOO 111 960854. Robert CHICHELEY 960858. Sir Thomas DE ARUNDEL 115 960859. Joan MOYNE 115 960896. John HAYWARD 960897. Margery WEVER 961536. John HANSON 961537. Alice WOODHOUSE 961538->1060863. unknown
21TH GENERATION
1060864->1921537. unknown 1906688. Walter de STRICKLAND 1906689. Douce CROFT 1906690. Sir Thomas PARR 1906691. Alice TUNSTALL 1921538. James DONNETT 1921648->1921661. Royal Lineage 107 1921662. John MERBURY 107 1921666. Vincent HERBERT 115 1921688. Sir Robert PASHELY 115 1921689. Philippa CERGEAUX 115 1921690. Sir Richard WYDVILLE 115 1921691. Elizabeth LYONS 1921696. Raulf KEMP 111 1921702. Sir Thomas HOO 111 1921716. John DE ARUNDEL 1921717. Elizabeth DESPENSER 115 107 1921792. James HAYWARD 1923072. Henry DE RASTRICK 1923074. Henry DE WOODHOUSE 1923075->2121727. unknown
22ND GENERATION
2121728->3843075. unknown 3843076->3843327. Royal Lineage 107 3843328->3843375. unknown 3813380. Sir John PARR 3813381. Agnes CROPHILL 3813382. Sir Thomas TUNSTALL 3843376. Robert PASHLEY 115 3843377. Anne HOWARD 115 3843378. Sir Richard CERGEAUX 115 3843379. Philippa FITZALAN 115 3843382. Sir John LYONS 3843432. John FITZALAN 3843433. Alianor MALTRAVERS 107 115 3843436->3846143. unknown 3846144. John DE RASTRICK 3846148. Alexander DE WOODHOUSE 3846149. Beatrice TOOTHILL 3846150->4243455. unknown
23RD GENERATION
4243456->7686151. unknown 7686152->7686655. Royal Lineage 107 7637760. Sir William PARR 7637761. Elizabeth de ROS 7686754. John HOWARD 115 7686756. Richard CERGEAUX 115 7686757. Margaret SENESCHAL 115 7686758. Edmund FITZALAN 115 7686759. Sibyl DE MONTEGU 115 7686864->7686865. Royal Lineage 107 7686866. Sir John MALTAVERS 107 7386867->8486910. unknown
 
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Person #256 Child Wife Father Mother <Previous><Next> A, D, G, 5, 6, ?
   Name: John Cooley
   Born: by 1740
  Place: prob England
   Died: possibly 1811
  Place: prob Casey County, KY
 Buried: 
Married: 
  Place: poss Caroline County, VA

Are you a John Cooley descendant? Please contact me at http://ancestraldata.com/mailer?michael. You also are welcome to sign up for the John Cooley Mailing List.


Sections: CONTENTS - John was not Dutch - The case for being English - The case for being a servant - Was John Cooley Scottish? - Who was John's wife? - Other Cooleys Related pages: the Tryal - Oct 1755 roll - July 1756 roll - Y Markers - Male Descendants - johncooley list archive

Distribution of Y-DNA Haplogroup R1a-L448

My genealogical research—and search for my Cooley roots—began in the late 1970s. This webpage went live in 1994 or 1995 but remained essentially blank until I began corresponding with Sandra Stanton and her cousin, Don Cooley (descendants of James Cooley, 1772-1821), in the spring of 2006. During this time, some longstanding myths have been dispelled, and perhaps a few others created, but we're confident we've made a breakthrough in identifying John Cooley of Stokes County, North Carolina. Any help with finding additional documentation, including data that disputes any of the following, will be welcomed.

From Pay Roll of Capt. Robert Spotswood's Company, 16 Oct 1755:

Richard Goode   11 Sep 1755   20 days
John Cooley   11 Sep 1755   20 days

Although John isn't listed, the July 13, 1756 roll for Spotswood's company makes it clear that the September 11 enlistment occurred at Caroline county, Virginia. The Goodes were long-time plantation owners in that area. This is significant because both Richard Goode and John Cooley eventually moved to Town Fork Settlement, Surry (later Stokes) county, North Carolina. They often show up on the same land records and may have had family connections.

John was likely born by 1738, very possibly in England. He might have been the John Cooley who was transported as a prisoner during July 1753 from London to Virginia on the sometimes slave ship the Tryal. But there is no certainty in that. For now, it simply fits and is nothing more than a working theory. John's wife's name is not known but she was not the commonly cited Elizabeth Fermin. John relocated to Town Fork Settlement, then in Rowan county, North Carolina, perhaps as early as the late 1750s or early- to mid-1760s (I believe about 1768).2

John Cooley's Family

No known authentic record exists for John Cooley's family. No will or other estate records have been found and only James and Reuben are named as sons on land records. Two deeds are known to exist between John and Edward, but no relationship is stated. Several other records name John Cooley, John Cooley Jr, William Matthews Cooley, Edward Cooley, and Hannah Cooley, in various combinations, as witnesses. These and other Cooleys, particularly Joseph and Perrin, are found living near one another on Stokes County census records. And there are suggestions—although I have not seen the records—that the marriage banns for Hannah and Elizabeth name John Cooley as their father.

The following closely conforms to a family group sheet by Dale "Pat" Walker (1946-1993), an end-product of his research during the 1970s and '80s. I have seen no similar sheet by anyone dated prior to it. The assumption, then, is that Dale was the first researcher known to have perceived these individuals as a cohesive family unit. Apart from his error in connecting John to a New York Dutch family—and sundry other far more insignificant mistakes—recent research has shown that Dale was remarkably successful in reconstructing John's family.

Based on the evidence at hand, the birth order differs somewhat from Dale's chart, and the name Benjamin is eliminated as a possible alternate name for Cornelius; there is no evidence for it.10 Some names are here simply because Dale had placed them on his chart. Although Cornelius and Elizabeth were born late enough to have been John's grandchildren, Dale was likely correct in their placement.—Certainly, there is no contradictory evidence. Recently discovered genealogic and genetic evidence suggest William Matthews Cooley was also John's son. Not noted here is Edmond Cooley, believed to have been born in North Carolina in 1773. He is an exact Y-DNA match to John's family. However, there has not been the slightest bit of genealogical data to place him in the group, let alone in Stokes County. (I have suggested he was Rice Cooley, who appears only once in the record—the 1800 census. For now, however, that is only of the flimsiest sort of speculation.)

William Matthews Cooley c1759-1823 Founder of the Stewart county TN Cooleys. DNA test results prove that William was of the Stokes county Cooleys. Although the genealogic/historic record also infers he was of this family, nothing has yet been found that specifically states he was John's son. However, to date, the genetic evidence (as well as lack of genealogical evidence) is making it increasingly likely that John was a "lone wolf," so to speak--that he was the only Cooley patriarch of his genetic make-up to have been in America at the time.
John Cooley 1761-1840+ Founder of the Casey county KY Cooleys. Married Sarah Willis. The 1880 Casey county KY census for his son Edmund states that he (John, the father) was born in Virginia.
Edward Cooley 1763-1822 Possibly born in VA. Gravestone states that he was 59 at death on 21 Nov 1822. That places his birth in late 1762 or 1763, likely the latter. He married Martha Raper and moved his family to Indiana. Proof of descent is found in Y chromosomal tests and more.
Daniel Cooley 1765-1826 Possibly born in VA. The 1810 census for Lincoln county KY states that he was 26-45. That puts his birth year no earlier than 1765. He died 6 Sep 1826 at Ray County, MO. Married Mildred Ball, 19 Jan 1786 in Lincoln County, KY. He joined his brothers in Missouri a few years before his death. Note that recent DNA test results prove that Daniel was not of this family.
Joseph Cooley 1767-1826 A 1932 letter by John Pierce Cooley (Joseph's grandson) states that Joseph was born in Virginia. He married Kaziah Casey 1807 Lincoln county KY. He was present at Fort Hempstead, Howard County, MO and died in Clay county MO, 3 April 1826. Many of his family were early settlers in Oregon. Another branch went to Texas. Proof of Joseph's descent is found in Y chromosomal tests, the common surname and in genealogical records that associate the families.
Perrin Cooley 1769-c1840 Possibly born in Rowan (now Stokes) county, NC. However, there is no evidence that the family had yet moved to NC. He may have been born in VA. He appears on the 1810 Washington county KY census as well as land and tax records there. He left for Missouri in 1811 with his brothers and was present at Fort Hempstead, Howard County, MO. He was the progenitor of the Randolph county Missouri Cooleys.
James Cooley 1772-1821 Born 12 Jun 1772. Died 1 Oct 1821. He married c1795 to Elizabeth, probably in NC. (She's often referred to as a daughter of Timothy Goode, cousin of Richard Goode, and sometimes as Richard's daughter. However, there is no evidence that she was even a Goode.) Proof of James's descent is found in deed John Cooley to James Cooley and further substantiated by Y chromosomal tests (see below). He was present at Fort Hempstead, Howard County MO.
Hannah Cooley 1774-1830+ Believed to have been born in Surry County, NC. (often cited as Stokes county but that wasn't formed until 1789). There is a Hannah Cooley listed as witness to a deed along with John and John Cooley Jr (Bk E p 229, 11 Aug 1792, Richard Goode to Reuben Sparks). Married Luke Barnett/Burnett 23 Dec 1795. It's worth noting that her niece, Joanna Cooley (daughter of Edward), was referred to as "Hanah" in a family bible record. Click on her name for my notes. More information has lately (summer 2012) been found.
Rice Cooley 1776- The only known record for Rice Cooley is his appearance on the 1800 Stokes County census. It lists only one person for his household, a male, 16-26. Pat Walker wrote that Rice was born in 1776. However, the census entry would suggest that he was born in 1774 or earlier. That a descendant of Edmond Cooley (1773-) is an exact 37/37 marker genetic match to John's family makes researchers wonder if Edmond and Rice were the same person. It would explain why another record for Rice has never been uncovered.
Reuben Cooley 1779-1859 Reuben married first Polly Harris and married second Elizabeth Followell. Proof of relationship to John is found in the 1804 deed John Cooley to Reuben Cooley. This is the Reuben Cooley of Marion county, KY who appears on the 1850 census. He's not the Reuben of Jessamine County who died in 1795, as some suggest, because John's Reuben was still alive in 1804. (The deed serves as the perfect testimony to this fact.) The Reuben of Marion County is also sometimes said to have been the son of Edward, therefore, John's grandson. However, the Reuben Cooley found in Bartholomew County IN, 1850, has been proved as Edward's son.
Cornelius Cooley 1781-1815 His presence here is based exclusively on Dale Walker's chart. He did not marry Dolly White, as often stated. His nephew, Cornelius (son of James), married her. (We now know that she was Dolly/Dorothy Cooley, a cousin.) He is likely the Cornelius who appears on the 1808 and 1810 tax lists for Casey co KY and is probably the same Cornelius found in Stewart county TN by 1812,9 and was married to Lucinda Cherry. The TN Cornelius died 1815 in the aftermath of the Battle of New Orleans. He had a daughter, Burnetta Mathews Cooley, and possibly a son named William. He may have gone to TN to be near William who, if the birth years are correct, was old enough to have been his father.
Elizabeth Cooley 1783- Married William Blackburn 19 Sep 1805 in Stokes County NC (Stokes County North Carolina Marriages Bonds). A William Blackburn can be found on the 1810 census for Casey county, KY (1 male 26-44, 3 females under 10, 1 female 26-44). It's not known if he's the same man. He may have been the son of Newman Blackburn and grandson of Ambrose Blackburn. As I suspect is true for the Cooleys, the Blackburns came to Town Fork Settlement NC from Caroline County VA.


John Cooley was not Dutch

The real scoop here is not in who John was but who he was not.

Thanks to Dale Walker's decades-old family group sheet, it is commonly believed that John Cooley was a son of Lambert (sometimes seen as William) Cornelius Cooley. That man may well have had a son named John but all evidence for our John's origins points elsewhere. And in more than 30 years of searching, I have never come across even a crumb of true data suggesting a Dutch ancestry. It is my belief that zero evidence should be sufficient cause to stop propagating something that can only be regarded as having a spurious origin. Furthermore, in addition to the citations recently found, there is very significant genetic evidence of a Scottish and Norse ancestry.

The results of research on mitochondrial DNA have been used for matrilineal genealogy since the early 1990s. Using the Y chromosome to help determine descent through the male line is a little newer. The trick is that the Y chromosome is passed down directly from father to son virtually without change. The significance of that is simple. All other chromosomes are combined from those of both parents. Of course, that makes sense: we inherit half of our genetic make up from each parent (who else?). It's that recombination that makes each of us unique. Without it, we'd be clones of one another--all identical twins, so to speak. But since the presence of the Y is what makes males (females, it stands to reason, do not have a Y chromosome) it has nothing with which to recombine and is passed down as a clone. Simply put, my Y chromosome is a twin of my dad's Y.

Although other Cooleys and I share a common ancestor in John, a man who was born more than 260 years ago, nearly all markers on our Y chromosomes match. (Compare our markers with the Y chromosome of a descendant of Daniell Cooley of Maryland). That fact combined with the paper trail makes it certain that we are descended from brothers. It also tells us that our Y's belong to what geneticists call haplogroup R1a1 and demonstrates that our Cooleys went to present day Great Britain from Norway perhaps as long ago as 5000 years.

I'm not certain how the erroneous Dutch connection was started but Lura Coolley Hamil certainly had something to do with it. See her 1932 letter to Mildred Tallant and my comments. Also, the July 31, 1977 letter from Elizabeth Cooley, genealogist for the Cooley Family Association of America, does much to dispel Hamil's work as do some of Eleanor Rue's papers. And I've made additional comment about Hamil's errors in The Vanishing Man.

The case for being English

Although geneticists can do their thing with science, genealogists, much like historians, need the literature that records events in the lives of people that place them in specific locations on specific dates. Find persons named in such a record and you know something about their origins. But helpful records are more often than not very difficult to find. Genealogists must rely on clues buried in the sparse data that is available--and sometimes in the tall-tales told in families--and make associations that may or may not be true. Without these inferences the researcher has literally no clue and no real direction in which to proceed. Speculation is essential and, as any scientist will tell you, good speculation can lead to evidence that may eventually elevate it to a hypothesis. Once you've got something strong, you're on solid theoretical ground. A scientific proof (the next and final stage in the game), however, not only presents excellent evidence, it is universally-recognized as simply having no reasonable evidence that points to another conclusion.

Scientific proofs are not found in the realm of genealogy but genetics has shown us that John's origins are probably in the British Isles. Let's see if we can put some tid-bits together and approach a hypothesis--one, of course, that is readily open, or perhaps even vulnerable, to a serious challenge--that he was from England.


John Cooley
 
 
John Cooley Jr
Bio of grandson, George, states that John "was a native of England".
 
Thomas H Cooley
 
George T Cooley
 
Edward Cooley
Bio of Edward's daughter, Elizabeth Brewer, states that she was "of English descent".
 
 
Elizabeth (Cooley) Brewer
 
Edward Cooley
 
Aaron Cooley
Bio of son Millard says that Aaron "was a native of Indiana and was of English descent."
 
Millard Cooley
 
Joseph Cooley
 
John Cooley
The memoirs of grandson Joseph state that John "was a full blooded Englishman".
 
William Cooley
 
Joseph Cooley
 
Reuben Cooley
Death certificate of son Stephen says that his father "Rubin" was born in England.
 
Stephen L Cooley

However, it seems that some of the above statements are not strictly true. We know from the 1850 census, for example, that Reuben Cooley was born in North Carolina, not in England. Likewise, the 1880 census entry for Edmond, a son of John (2), states that his father was born in Virginia, and a letter written by John Pearce Cooley, Joseph's grandson, says that he, too, was born in Virginia. And, not noted above, is a note written to my father by his aunt Vernal Shelton, who says that "[he] came from England in early part of 18 century." But she said that about John's son Edward, which was decidedly not the case as he was not yet born.

How could the English tradition be documented down four distinct lineages and yet the specifics be wrong? I know it can happen. I used to think my paternal grandmother was born in France. I now know that she was born in Connecticut and that her father was born in France. If it hadn't been for my interest in genealogy, I might still be propagating misinformation--more than 100 years after her birth. With that notion in mind, we can triangulate all of these traditions back to the senior John. And that makes sense as many, if not most (if not all), Cooley immigrants to the American colonies in the 17th and 18th century were from England:


Immigrant Date Imm. First Settled Sources/Notes
Benjamin Cooley 1643, England Massachusetts Parker Genealogy [link]
Tho Cooly 1662 Virginia Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, 1623-1666, Nell Marion Nugent.
John Cooley ca 1665, England New York? Directory of Persons in New Netherlands from 1613 to 1674 vol IV.

A source is not listed for this entry. Therefore, I'm suspicious.
Richard Cooley 1674 Maryland The Early Settlers of Maryland, Skordas (1979). On page 105: Cooley, Richard, book 18 page 84, transported 1674. References are "compiled from records of land patents, 1633-1680, in the Hall of Records, Annapolis, Maryland."
Roger Cooly 1693 Virginia Cavaliers and Pioneers: Abstracts of Virginia Land Patents and Grants, 1623-1666, Nell Marion Nugent.
John Cooley 1723 Virginia Transported on the Forward, Captain Daniel Russell, Oct 1723. Source: The King's Passengers to Maryland and Virginia, Peter Wilson Coldham.
James Colley 1729, England Maryland Virtual Jamestown [link]. From St. Giles in the Fields, Middlesex. Indentured February 14 1729 for 4 years. Age 20.
Richard Cooley 1743, England Virginia This may not be the man found at Old Bailey Online [link]. He was sentenced to death.

Bonded Passengers To America vol 4 pg 35, by Peter Wilson Coldham. Richard Cooley, transported Apr 1743 on the Justitia (Barnet Baird, master) from London to Virginia with a total of 132 convicts. Richard's age is given as 14, making him born c1729. Ref #T53/41/227.
John Cooley 1746, England Maryland Old Bailey Online [link]. If our John Cooley was born as early as the 1730s this man could have been about the right age.
John Cooley 1746, England Virginia Transported on the Laura, Capt William Gracie, April 1746. Source: The King's Passengers to Maryland and Virginia, Peter Wilson Coldham.
Robert Cooley 1751, England Virginia Bonded Passengers To America vol 4 pg 117, by Peter Wilson Coldham.

Robert Cooley transported Sep 1751 on the Greyhound (William Gracie, master) from from London to Virginia with a total of 153 felons. Ref #: T1/349/1, T53/44/243
Thomas Cooling/Cooley 1751, England Maryland Bonded Passengers To America vol 4 pg 18, by Peter Wilson Coldham.

Thomas Cooling (indexed in Filby as Cooley) transported May 1751 on the Tryal (John Johnston, master) from London to Maryland. T1/346/24
John Cooley 1753, England Virginia Old Bailey Online [link]. Among the records discovered to date, we believe that this John Cooley is the most likely to have been our ancestor.
James Cooley 1755, England Maryland English Convicts in Colonial America 1617-1775 vol 2 pg 62, by Peter W. Coldham.

James Cooley departed Feb 1755, arrived Apr 1755 on the Greyhound (Alexander Stewart, master) from Bristol to Maryland with a total of 78 convicts. Ref #:T53/45/117, C05/750
James Cooley 1755, England Maryland Transported on the Rose, Capt Thomas Slade. Source: The King's Passengers to Maryland and Virginia by Peter W. Coldham.
Margaret Cooley 1755, England Unknown Old Bailey Online [link].
John Cooley 1756, England Virginia English Convicts in Colonial America 1617-1775 vol 2, by Peter W. Coldham. He was sentenced in Worcestershire (near Birmingham) and transported Oct 1756 on the ship Barnard, Captain Phillip Weatherall, from London to Virginia. There were 114 convicts on board. Ref #T53/45/575.
John Cooley 1774, England Maryland? Old Bailey Online [ link]. Possibly the same listed as "runaway" transported on the Thornton, Capt John Kidd, May 1774. Could he be the John Cooley who was advertised in the Virginia Gazette (Williamsburg), 21 April 1775 as being one of the "seven English servant men" who were "living near Bush River, Harford county, Maryland?" (The former link for this is defunct.)

"John Cooley, about 22 years of age, by trade a plaisterer, about five feet eight inches high, round faced, and well set."
Peter Cooley 1774, England Virginia "The following indentured servants bound for four years to go from London to Virginia by the Planter, Mr. David Bowers... Peter Cooley of London, weaver, aged 38; Peter Cooley Jr. of London, weaver, aged 18; John Cooley of London, weaver, aged 16; Joseph Cooley of London, weaver, aged 12." The Complete Book of Emigrants, 1607-1776, Sec V, Ch 25, 1774, p. 44.
William Cooley 1774, London Maryland From Irish Emigrants to North America: "Cooley, William, born 1753, a founder in Dublin, emigrated from London to Maryland on the Rebecca as an indentured servant. 9.1774. [PRO.T47/9-11]". The full passenger list is found in The New England Historical and Genealogical Register by Henry Fitz-Gilbert Waters, volume 64, page 113.
Abraham Cooley ca 1780, England New York, North Carolina, Virginia Appears on the 1782 tax list of Surry county NC. I have seen no primary evidence for Abraham and there seems to be little online. He is invariably referred to as "an Englishman." A bit of information regarding his descendants is found here. Please note, that nothing has been found that can connect him to our John Cooley, despite the fact that he lived for several years in Surry county. Also, do not confuse his son Peter with the Peter who immigrated with his family in 1774.

I have already mentioned the John Cooley who was transported to Virginia in 1753. And we know that our John Cooley was in Caroline county Virginia two years later. We also know that Port Royal in Caroline county was a busy port during this time and we know that the Tryal arrived in Virginia on many occasions, stopping in several ports to drop off slaves. Could it have stopped in Port Royal with its cargo of servants in 1753, thereby explaining our John's presence in the county two years later? Certainly, it's possible but I've yet to find the proof.

In the meantime, other possibilities for John's origins need to be explored:

Was John Cooley Scottish?

DNA tells us that our Cooley forebears were not only of Scottish heritage but that they may have been distantly related to (not descended from) the great 12th century Scottish chieftain Somerled, as well as to the clan MacDonald.7

The claim of Scottish descent becomes a bit more interesting after hearing the story of Charles Cooley, a cousin through Edward and Martha (Raper) Cooley's grandson, James Armstrong Cooley. Charles's father is buried with a small of piece of tartan that had been passed down from one generation to the next. He told his family stories about kirkings that had taken place in Putnam County, MO and that the ancient Cooleys were Jacobites: the older brothers having been executed and the younger ones transported to America. Although Charles is unable to provide a time frame for this immigration, the shipping to America of 936 Jacobites following the 1746 Battle of Culloden Moor5 would have been contemporaneous to John Cooley.

To date, these claims have not been substantiated. But it is worth noting that John Cooley served in Captain Spotswood's company with John MacDonald, whose father Alexander is said to have been at Culloden Moor. I find it interesting that an Alexander MacDonald and a John Cooley were transported together in 1753 on The Tryal. However, John MacDonald's father, who was associated with the Spotswood family, was transported in 1747 on the Gildart.

The name Cooley itself does not appear to be Scottish. But research by others suggest that the largest concentration of Cooleys is to be found in the North of England, just below the Scottish border.

Are we reading too much history into what may be no more than coincidence and even fantasy? Possibly. Whatever the truth turns out to be, this is a valid line of inquiry.

CULLODEN
Culloden Moor

The case for being a servant

So far, the only record we have that places John in Virginia is the militia payroll. There's not much there but we can turn to later records for Spotswood's company to get an idea as to who he served with. One of the first things that struck me about the July 1756 roll is the number of foreign born recruits: 45%. Just that one statistic increases the likelihood that John was also foreign born. (He had to come from somewhere.) Furthermore, at least four other men of the company, particularly the 46 year-old John Pedder, may have been convicts. (The others being Thomas Douglas, John Donally and William Thomas.)

According to historian Richard Hofstadter, more than half of the immigrants to America at the time were convicts, indentured servants or redemptioners (contracted to pay off their passage with work).1 It might seem odd that convicts would be in His Majesty's service but in the colonies, at least, they often were. And, unlike the north where indentured servitude was scarce, southern men of some wealth and standing could send off their servants in place of themselves--and could additionally be reimbursed by the crown. If John was a servant, who might have hired him out? Can clues be found in the rolls?

Captain Robert Spotswood was the son of one-time Virginia governor, Alexander Spotswood. Not surprisingly, the governor ran a large plantation populated in part with indentured servants. In fact, there are published newspaper accounts of servants running away from his estate. It was only on September 6, 1755 that Colonel George Washington, as commander of the Virginia Regiment, ordered Spotswood to recruit a company of soldiers.6 Two had enlisted a few days earlier and the others between the 9th and the 25th. Spotswood had only a few weeks to assemble his men and to march them to Fort Cumberland. It seems possible to me that he might have recruited from within his own domestic "staff".

We also know that Richard Goode came from a planter clan (and he later owned slaves in Stokes county, NC). Might he had brought John along, either as a friend or perhaps as someone having the double benefit to him as servant and as additional revenue?

John Sale, William Blakey and William Thorpe, all of Caroline county, may have also been of the same class.

Although these several men, along with John Cooley and Richard Goode, enlisted at Caroline county, it doesn't necessarily follow that John and Richard were themselves from Caroline. The Goodes could also be found in nearby Orange, Essex and Spotsylvania counties. Nevertheless, for now, it is all that we have to go on.

After moving to Town Fork Settlement, Richard Goode went on to hold several positions in the local government, including the office of Sheriff. He was eventually elevated to Major during the Revolution and seemed to have garnered a good deal of respect in Stokes county. He was doubtlessly well-educated, literate and was a large property owner. John Cooley, on the other hand, was known to sign with his mark, a 'C', indicating that he was likely illiterate. He was given "poor money" in 1761 and is described in a 1772 document as being a laborer.

The John Cooley convicted in London during July 1753 was given 7 years indentured servitude. That sentence would have been up in 1760. John's first child was born in Virginia3 in 1761. As it was common practice not to allow servants to marry, it can well be inferred that he married in 1760 following his release. And with that scenario, and having emigrated to a new colony with a young family, the community could well have found that John should receive benefit of the poor tax.

So how could it be that an illiterate ex-convict banished from his homeland, released seven years later, who was soon to have a family, and a man considered to be indigent end up being a constable owning hundreds of acres of land?

To answer that question, we need to look at Britain. The government sought to solve two important problems by exporting its criminals. The treasury needed relief from the burden of paying out of the poor tax to a very substantial number of its population. Exiling them to colonies, even for such minor offenses as petty theft, seemed as though it would curtail some of that expense. And the practice helped populate the colonies with the cheap labor needed to grow the economy--the idea being that the general British population would not go voluntarily (although, of course, many did). They simply were not willing to endure the dangerous passage over the Atlantic at a time when up to half the passengers and crew could die. Even the most desperate in the country, those who might well have benefited from a new life elsewhere, were dissuaded by the horror stories and undoubtedly preferred the certainty of their present condition, regardless of its bleakness. Deportation was the simple answer.

But even a nation and country that enslaved Africans for life believed that a person convicted for a crime was redeemable. Certainly, seven years of selfless service to another, albeit forced, was adequate demonstration of his or her ability to become a productive member of society. To that end, these now free British subjects were routinely given 50 acres of land, some cash and some clothing. An enterprising young man, as John doubtlessly was, could have turned that into a reasonably comfortable life. Indeed, he successfully raised a large family, all of whom lived into adulthood.

Does a hairy coo live in a hairy coo ley?

HAIRYCOO
A Scottish Hairy Coo

The name Cooley has potentially several origins. In his blog, Bill Cooley does a pretty good job of dispelling the notion that it's essentially an Irish name, showing that Cooley is found in Ireland almost exclusively as a place name rather than a surname. I had long favored the MacAuleys as possible ancestors, (from MacOlaf, the son of Olaf), which I found particularly appealing after learning that my yDNA has Norse/Scottish markers. Historically, however, Cooley has been found most often in the North of England. And there's a case to be made for the idea that names ending in ley come from the Old English word lea, meaning field. The word coo is simply the Scottish pronunciation of cow.

Frankly, since we have no idea what John Cooley's father's last name was, let alone his first name, there's no way of knowing the surname's origin among his own ancestors. But the following meaning of cooley, found at the online edition of the Oxford English dictionary, is probably not relevant as its first published usage did not occur until 1796, when John was already well-advanced in years.

cooley

rare.

Phonetic spelling of F. coulis, cullis

Broth of boiled meat.

1796 H. GLASSE Cookery v. 41 Make a rich cooley.

The alternate etymological origin of cooley (cullis) appears to have dated back to at least 1420. The OED cites this quotation:

1543 TRAHERON Vigo's Chirurg. IX. 228 If the pacient be weake..ye shall gyve hym the coleys of a yonge capon.

The point here, really, is that we're not only unlikely to find the origin of our name as first used among John's antecedents but that it's a subject that should probably not be taken too seriously.

Who was John's wife?

At this point we can only speculate. Elizabeth Firmin is out, (See various articles.) Today, the name Perrin would not commonly be given to a child as a first name (neither would Rice) but it was common practice to give one of the children their mother's maiden name. Certainly, when genealogists see a surname assigned as a given name, they've got something to think about. So, with that as a possibility, as well as the notion that John may have lived in Caroline county and that he was possibly a indentured servant, this is worth noting:

Sandra Stanton found the following in Colonial Caroline, A History of Caroline County, Virginia by TE Campbell:

  • Year: 1756
  • Servant: Thomas Perrin
  • Master: Timothy Smith
  • Why in Court: Escaped for 5 days - serve according to law and 200 lbs. of tobacco fine.

Frankly, I would think that with all the sons that John Cooley had, one of them would have been named after his father-in-law. None, of course, were named Thomas. But it would also not have been uncommon to name the second son after the mother's father. That would have been Edward. And let's say that their first daughter was named after her maternal grandmother. It's wild and reckless speculation but it's all we have. Shall we look for an Edward and Hannah Perrin? How about an Edward and Hannah Rice?4 There were several similar naming conventions used in 17th and 18th century colonial America. There might well be clues to be found in the names of their children.

I keep finding the Goode family mentioned in many of the same records I find the name Cooley. Considering that the Cooleys and Goodes were together in Caroline county VA, Town Fork Settlement NC and Casey county KY, I can't help but wonder if there was an in-law relationship, possibly among Major Richard Goode's generation. But Richard's father died early and there seems to be very little record of his children. The senior Richard Goode's family has never been fully sorted out.

And there is considerable evidence that William Matthews Cooley might have been John Cooley's eldest son, making Matthews a contender as being John's wife's maiden name, along with Goode, Perrin and Rice.

Whoever John Cooley's wife was, the family she was born into may have simply not been adequately recorded. Likewise, John Cooley's descendants may be resigned always to talk of this ancestress in the most general terms. Even so, genetics and historic research have shown us that there is much yet to learn.

Other Cooleys

There were other Cooley individuals and/or families living in the vicinity near John. Abraham Cooley, born in England, is noted in the section on immigrants. I have seen no evidence to suggest that John and Abraham were related.

There was the "famous" William Cooley8 who set out with Daniel Boone from Salisbury (considerably south of present-day Stokes county NC) to Kentucky in 1769. Although there is little known about William, his origins may have been in Pennsylvania, not Virginia. The only thing that connects the two Cooleys to one another is that they lived in Rowan county, probably in locations somewhat distant from one another. (The Boone property was located in what is now Davidson county. The John Cooley property was in present-day Stokes county, North Carolina.)

A James Cooley enlisted in the revolutionary army for a second time in Surry county and was made prisoner there by the British. Lura Coolley Hamil stated in her book that he served in Virginia with William Cooley (above). However, I believe she was mistaken.

Although Reuben Ransom Cooley is believed to have never resided in Stokes County, North Carolina, he does show up near Edward Cooley's family in Indiana. It's claimed that he was the Reuben R Cooley who married in Bartholomew County but he certainly is not the Reuben living there in 1840 as he is believed to have been the R R Cooley appearing the same year in Decatur County, Indiana.

And there were other North Carolina Cooleys residing several counties east of Stokes county. To date, nothing has been found to suggest they were related to our John Cooley. But it should be noted that they came from counties very near Caroline county VA, where I believe our John enlisted into the Virginia Regiment in 1755.

Lee Cooley, a descendant of James Cooley (born c1809 in PA) is nearly an exact yDNA match. The fact that he shares the name makes it a near certainty that James was related to John Cooley in some way. The age difference is large enough that James could have been a great grandson of John's. Although the trail for James's origins have grown cold, his DNA suggests that John Cooley may not have been alone, as I have often speculated for the simple reason that I have not been able to connect him to anyone. Lee's DNA potentially changes everything.

There is no evidence that John Cooley came from Pennsylvania but there are several reasons to investigate some of those families. To that end, I've started a page for Pennsylvania Cooleys and a related project for the Cooleys on the 1860 census.

Finally, I'm "mapping out" the Cooley lineages I'm working on, all in an attempt to find any family that may have been collateral to John's ancestral line.

1. From America at 1750, A Social Portrait, Richard Hofstadter, 1971: "If we leave out of account the substantial Puritan migration of 1630-40, not less than half, and perhaps considerably more, of all the white immigrants to the colonies were indentured servants, redemptioners or convicts. Certainly a good many more than half of all persons who went to the colonies south of New England were servants in bondage to planters, farmers, speculators and proprietors. The tobacco economy of Virginia and Maryland was founded upon the labor of gangs of indentured servants, who were substantially replaced by slaves only during the course of the eighteenth century. `The planters' fortunes here,' wrote the governor of Maryland in 1755, `consist in the number of their servants (who are purchased at high rates) much as the estates of an English farmer do in the multitude of cattle.'" And from His Excellency George Washington, Richard J Ellis, 2004: "The raw material from which Washington recruited was raw indeed. He kept several rosters of enlisted men, that reveal that most of his recruits were recently arrived immigrants, primarily from England, Ireland, or Scotland, or second-generation carpenters, bricklayers, and tanners from the Pennsylvania or Virginia back country."

2. There is a John "Cooley?" listed on the 1758 tax list for Rowan county, "a vast territory with an indefinite western boundary" (Wikipedia) and a 1761 entry for John Cooly, "One of the Poor of the Parish of St. Luke" (Abstracts of the Court of Pleas & Quarter Sessions, Rowan County, North Carolina, 1753-1789). The following quote, appears at http://www.djhooker.com/7202.htm (I've corrected the typos): "Among the early tax lists in the North Carolina State Archives is a fragment of the 1758 Tax List of Rowan County, dated 8 October 1758. The persons named in this one page list lived in that portion of Rowan County which became Guilford in 1771 and Randolph County in 1779 - and resided in the Northwest quarter of Randolph County, north and northwest of Asheboro..." In other words, the John Cooley named in 1758 was some distance from Town Fork Settlement, the only place we can reliably place our John Cooley. Although both of these citations (1758 & 1761) may well be for our John, the first wholly reliable reference to him is found with the 1771 Surry County tax entry for John Cooley, Constable. His son, James, was born there in 1772. It must be noted, however, that there is good evidence to suggest that Perrin was born there in 1769, the same year that William Cooley set out for Kentucky with Boone.

3. See the 1880 census, Casey county KY, page 630.

4. Of course, this rather convoluted reasoning could have another wrench thrown into it should it turn out that William Cooley of Stewart county TN was, in fact, John's eldest child--a possibility that seems increasingly probable.

5. The following account of the Culloden prisoners is found at the website Swanstrom Genealogy: "After the Battle of Culloden, 3,470 people were prisoners of the English. Of these, 936 were transported to the colonies, 222 were banished, 120 were executed, 88 died in prison, 58 escaped from prison, 76 received a conditional pardon, and 1,287 were released or exchanged. The fate of the remaining 684 is unknown. Those who were transported spent nearly two years in miserable conditions in English jails while the government negotiated with merchants. Finally, in the spring of 1747 the prisoners were taken from the jail in Liverpool, handcuffed in pairs, and locked in the holds of ships bound for America."

6. From Washington, George, 1732-1799. The writings of George Washington from the original manuscript sources: volume 1. Electronic Text Center, University of Virginia Library. "To Captain Robert Spotswood... As soon as you arrive in Town with your Recruits, you are to put yourself under the Command of Major Andrew Lewis, or the Field Officer appointed for that Rendezvous: And you are to be strictly obedient to all such lawful Commands, as you shall from time to time receive from him: and particularly to observe, that the Muster Rolls of your Men are regularly called three times a day, and that they are as often called out to their Exercise; at which times you are to be present. If it should so happen that you arrive before the Field Officer; you are then to receive your Orders from, and make your daily Reports to, the Oldest Officer present, having regard to the above Directions. [Note: The same orders were sent to Captains Lewis and Harrison, Lieutenant Lowry, and Ensign Weedon.]"

7. See also Electric Scotland: http://www.electricscotland.com/history/articles/norse.htm. Somerled descendants have 8 repeats at DYS459a. (Our line has 9. However, a Norse origin is confirmed by being 22 or less at YCAIIb.)

8. Dale Walker stated in 1978 that William was "born 1747 and died 1818 in Jessamine Co., Ky." He doesn't cite his source but I suspect it was from the much maligned (for good reason) A Story of Pioneering.

9. 1812 Stewart County TN Tax List, Capt. Pearce's Company, by David Hogan.

10. The only evidence that a Benjamin Cooley might have been associated with John's family is the presence of a Benjamin Cooley on the Stokes County 1820 census. In fact, DNA has shown that he was of a different group. His descendants go by the name Coley. The DNA suggests that he might have been related to the James Cooley (1758-1834) and Penelope Gargus line of Halifax County, NC.



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